Fragrance Applications in Personal Care Science
Fragrances represent a multi-billion dollar market within the chemical industry and an area of active research. This course is designed to demonstrate how fragrance chemistry is applied to the largest market for fragrances, Personal Care products. We will explore the classifications of olfactive ingredients, show how complex fragrances are composed and applied, and the mechanisms of fragrance performance.
Prerequisite: 16:137:570 or the equivalent. This course is part of the curriculum for the Masters of Business and Science Personal Care Science concentration. It will also serve as an elective for students in any of the Life Sciences Concentrations that are associated with the Personal Care/Cosmetic Product Sector for example Chemistry, Food Science, Drug Discovery and Development, etc. Some graduate students in Food Science or Chemistry (with the appropriate background) may also be interested in this course. The course will include some in-class laboratories.
Week 1: Introduction / History – Course deliverables. Discuss dichotomies within Fragrance Applications: Science vs. Empiricism, Functional vs. Hedonic Benefits, and Natural vs. Synthetic. Growth of the chemical and fragrance industries.
Week 2: Fragrance Industry / Terminology – Main fragrance suppliers and their organizational structure. Process for fragrance development at a fragrance company and this is incorporated into product development process at a consumer products company. Key fragrance terminology.
Week 3: Fragrance Construction / Categorization – Pyramidal structure for fragrances and its relationship to olfaction and volatility. Broad olfactive categories of ingredients and olfactive “space”.
Week 4: Fragrance Ingredients I – Top note ingredients and their olfactive character (complemented with smelling sessions). Synthetic and natural sources.
Week 5: Fragrance Ingredients II – Mid and Bottom note ingredients and their olfactive character (complemented with smelling sessions). Synthetic and natural sources.
Week 6: Fragrance Volatility and Evaporation – Fragrance release, initial bloom, and role of fixatives. Quantitative physical/chemical models of volatility.
Week 7: Mid Term Exam & Fragrance Ingredient Paper Due – Mid Term exam may be a take-home exam depending on time constraints.
Week 8: Testing and Evaluation Techniques for Fragrances – Commonly used analytical and sensorial methods to evaluate fragrance performance in Personal Care products.
Week 9: Fine Fragrances / Stability Testing – Alcoholic-based systems. Stability issues due to chemical interactions.
Week 10: Functional Perfumery / Malodor Control – Common malodors and deodorancy. Coverage of off-notes in product bases.
Week 11: Fragrancing in Wash-off Products – Surfactant-based applications. Fragrance solubilzation strategies. Use of clogP parameter. Challenges in fragrance deposition.
Week 12: Fragrancing in Leave-on Products – Emulsion-based applications. Stability issues due to phase behavior.
Week 13: Advanced Fragrance Delivery Systems (Guest Speaker) – Encapsulation expert or a comparable expert in another advanced technology area.
Week 14: IFRA Safety & Regulatory – Hazard and risk assessments in fragrances. Self-regulation of industry by IFRA. Allergens and compliance to European REACh requirements.
Week 15: Research Topic Presentations
1) Mid term Project. Each student submits a review paper on a fragrance ingredient of their choice.
References must incorporate a current article from the Perfumery and Fragrances journal and must have additional research articles in support referenced. Ingredient can be natural or synthetic. Professor must approve choice of ingredient.
2) Final Project. Students are divided into teams. Each team will give a 30 minute presentation on a fragrance research topic with a support from the recent literature (must be peer reviewed journal). Topic must include a current fragrance technology, its end benefit to the consumer and the challenges/consequences of incorporating that technology into a personal care product. Students are graded on their communication skills, technical understanding of the topic, and how creatively they apply the technology to a Personal Care application.
Charles Sell, Understanding Fragrance Chemistry, Allured Publishing/Carol Stream, Ill, 2008. ISBN-10: 1932633383, ISBN-13: 978-193263338
At the conclusion of the course, students will be able to:
1. Demonstrate an understanding of fragrance composition, the ingredients used therein and the technical drivers of fragrance performance.
2. Be aware of the fragrance applications in consumer products and the functional and hedonic benefits that they deliver, with special emphasis on fine fragrances, rinse-off cleansers and leave-on emulsions.
3. Develop oral and written communication skills using the proper fragrance terminology. Be able to critically interpret fragrance technical publications and apply it to Personal Care applications.
6. Expectations and Course Policies:
This course is designed to provide students with an in-depth understanding of the field of cosmetic fragrances that is a key efficacy driver of consumer product acceptance. The course will incorporate a mid-term student and final team project to develop presentation and team skills. Mid-term and final exams will be utilized to ensure students understand important scientific concepts in the field.
1) Class Engagement (20%) Demonstration that the student is engaged in the course material. This evaluation takes in account class participation and performance on weekly “pop” quizzes.
2) Fragrance Ingredient Review (20%) Each student submits a review paper on a fragrance ingredient of their choice. References must incorporate a current article from the Perfumery and Fragrances journal and have additional research articles in support.
3) Mid Term Exam (30%)
4) Research Presentation (30%)
5) Final Exam. Students with a B+ average or lower can take final exam that can raise grade by 10%.